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NLP Glossary

NLP Glossary and NLP Definitions of commonly used terms

Helpful Links:
Definition of NLP (Neuro Linguistic Programming)

Coaching vrs Therapy and Alternatives

NLP Glossary Search assistant, Alphabetical Terms:
| A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | (click your ‘Back’ button to return here)

A
ACCESSING CUES
Subtle behaviours that indicate which representational system a person is using. Typical types of accessing cues include eye movements, voice tone and tempo, body posture, gestures, and breathing patterns.

“AS-IF” FRAME
Pretending that some event has happened. Thinking “as if” it had occurred, encourages creative problem solving by mentally going beyond apparent obstacles to desired solutions. Ask “What would it be like if I could … ?”

AFFILIATING
The need of human beings to affiliate with each other. One of the Meta Programs that indicates whether a person prefers to work alone or with a team.

ALIGN
Arrange so that all the elements being aligned are parallel, and therefore moving in the same direction.

AMBIGUITY
The use of language that is vague, or ambiguous. Language that is ambiguous is also abstract (as opposed to specific).

ANALOGUE
Having shades of meaning, as opposed to Digital, which has discrete (On/off) meaning. As in an analogue watch (a watch with minute and hour hands).

ANALOGUE MARKING
Using your voice tone, body language, gestures, etc. to mark out key word in a sentence or a special piece of your presentation.

ANCHOR
Any stimulus that is associated with a specific response. Anchors happen naturally, and they can also be set up intentionally, for example, ringing a bell to get peoples attention, or more subtly, standing in a particular place when answering questions.

ANCHORING
The process of associating an internal response with some external trigger (similar to classical conditioning) so that the response may be quickly, and sometimes covertly, re-accessed. Anchoring can be visual (as with specific hand gestures), auditory (by using specific words and voice tone), and kinaesthetic (as when touching and arm or laying a hand on someone’s shoulder). Criteria for anchoring:
a) Intensity or purity of experience;
b) Timing; at peak of experience;
c) Accuracy of replication of anchor.

ASSOCIATION
As in a memory, looking through your own eyes, hearing what you heard, and feeling the feelings as if you were actually there. This is called the associated state.

ATTITUDE
A collection of values and beliefs around a certain subject. Our attitudes are choices we have made.

AUDITORY
Relating to hearing or the sense of hearing.

AWAY FROM
A Meta program – when a person’s preference is to move in the opposite direction from what they want. “I don’t want a 9 to 5 job.”

B
BACKTRACK
To review or summarize, using another’s key words and tonalities, or in presentations, a very precise summary using the same key words in the same voice tones as were originally used.

B.A.G.E.L. MODEL
The B.A.G.E.L. model, developed by Robert Dilts, provides a set of micro behavioural distinctions, defined by NLP that can be used to identify and enhance cognitive and physiological states.
B ody posture {or Breathing}
A ccessing cues (non-verbal) {or, anything else}
G estures
E ye movements
L anguage patterns

BEHAVIOUR
The specific physical actions and reactions through which we interact with people and the environment around us.

BEHAVIOURAL FLEXIBILITY
The ability to vary one’s own behaviour in order to elicit, or secure, a response from another person. Behavioural Flexibility can refer to the development of an entire range of responses to any given stimulus as opposed to having habitual, and therefore limiting, responses that would inhibit performance potential. John Grinder suggests that you each night before going to sleep, you review your day and create 3 different ways of responding. This way you will automatically build up your Behavioural Flexibility and you will discover that you respond more appropriately to the world around you. Behavioural Flexibility is a key element in NLP.

BELIEFS
Closely held generalizations about
(1) Cause,
(2) Meaning, and
(3) Boundaries in
(a) The world around us,
(b) Our behaviour,
(c) Our capabilities, and
(d) Our identity.
Beliefs function at a different level than concrete reality and serve to guide and interpret our perceptions of reality, often by connecting them to our criteria or value systems. Beliefs are notoriously difficult to change through typical rules of logic or rational thinking.

BREAK STATE
Get out of a state by thinking about or doing something different. Used in NLP techniques to completely separate one state from another, and to ensure one state does not contaminate another.

C
CALIBRATION
The process of learning to read another person’s unconscious, non-verbal responses in an ongoing interaction by pairing observable behaviour’s clues with a specific internal response. A very important first step in most NLP processes, you calibrate the problem state. That is, how is your client’s body posture, where does the eyes go, how is the breathing, skin colour, voice tone etc. Knowing how the problem state looks like you have a reference point for measuring the success of your intervention.

CALIBRATED LOOP
Unconscious pattern of communication in which behavioural cues of one person trigger specific responses from another person in an ongoing interaction.

CAPACITY
Mastery over an entire class of behaviour – knowing how to do something. Capabilities from the development of a mental map allowing us to select and organize groups of individual behaviours. In NLP these mental maps take the form of cognitive strategies and Meta-Programs.

CHAINING ANCHORS
When a series of anchors are released as each anchor experience peak allowing you to easily move through a sequence of states. This can take you through a chain of emotions progressively leading from a stuck state, to a resourceful state.

CHANGE PERSONAL HISTORY
An NLP anchoring process that adds resources into past problem memories with continuing negative impact, transforming them into memories with a positive or even numinous influence. A way to change the emotional impact of memories.

CHOREOGRAPHY
Systematically using different places for different kinds of behaviour. For example standing or sitting in a different position for delivering input, recounting stories, and answering questions etc. This sets up spatial anchors for the people you speak to. Particularly important in training situations.

CHUNKING
Organizing or breaking down some experience into bigger or smaller pieces. Chunking up involves moving to a larger, more abstract level of information. Chunking down involves moving to a more specific and concrete level of information. Chunking laterally involves finding other examples at the same level of information.

COLLAPSING ANCHORS
When two separate anchors are released simultaneously they combine two different internal experiences. This is especially effective with kinaesthetic anchors.

COMPLETENESS
A logical semantic property of the full linguistic representation, the Deep Structure. Surface Structures are complete if they represent every portion of the Deep Structure.

CONGRUENCE
When all of a person’s internal beliefs, strategies, and behaviours are fully in agreement and oriented toward securing a desired outcome. Words, voice and body language – give the same message.

CONSCIOUS INCOMPETENCE
The second stage of the learning cycle in which conscious attention is on the task and the results are variable. This is the stage when the learning rate is the greatest.

CONSCIOUS COMPETENCE
The third stage of the learning cycle in which full conscious attention is still to carry out an activity. The skill is not yet fully integrated and habitual

CONTENT REFRAMING
Taking a statement and giving it another meaning, by focusing on another part of the content, asking, “What else could this mean?”

CONTEXT
The framework surrounding a particular event. This framework will often determine how a particular experience or event is interpreted.

CONTROL FRAME
Setting a limit on the scope or time of an activity.

COVERT
Subtle or out of conscious awareness.

CRITERIA
The Values or standards a person uses to make decisions and judgements about the world. A single criterion is composed of many elements, conscious and sub-conscious. The question to ask is: “What’s important about ….?”

CROSS OVER MIRRORING
Matching a person’s body language with a different type of movement, e.g. tapping your foot in time to their speech rhythm.

D
DECISION
Having completed the process of deciding, which usually (sometimes wrongly) fixes the process in time.

DEEP STRUCTURE
The sensory maps (both conscious and sub-conscious) that people use to organize and guide their behaviour.

DELETION
One of the three universals of human perception; the process by which selected portions of the world are excluded from the representation created by the person. Within language systems, deletion is a transformational process in which portions of the Deep Structure are removed and, therefore, do not appear in the Surface Structure representation.

DIGITAL
Having a discrete (on / off) meaning, as opposed to Analogue, which has shades of meaning.

DISSOCIATION
As in a memory, for example, looking at your body in the picture from the outside, so that you do not have the feelings you would have if you were actually there.

DISTORTION
One of the three universals of human perception; the process by which the relationships, which hold among the parts of that which is perceived, are represented differently from the real world event that they represent. One of the most common examples of distortion in modelling is the representation of a process by an event. Within language systems, this is called normalization.

DOVETAILING OUTCOMES
The process of fitting together different outcomes, optimising solutions. The basis of win-win negotiations.

DOWN-TIME
As in having all sensory input channels turned inward so that there are no chunks of attention available for outward attention.

E
ECOLOGY
The study of the effects of individual actions on the larger system. In an individual, the study of the effects of individual components of therapy on the bigger picture of the whole individual. In all NLP processes an ecology check is incorporated assuring harmony.

ELICITATION
The act of discovery and detection of certain internal processes.

ENVIRONMENT
The external context in which our behaviour takes place. Our environment is that which we perceive as being “outside” of us. It is not part of our behaviour but is rather something we must react to.

EMBEDDED COMMANDS
This is when you mark out certain phrases that could stand on their own as commands, by changing your voice tone or by gesturing so that they don’t get it consciously, only unconsciously.

EYE ACCESSING CUES
Movements of the eyes in certain directions, which indicate visual, auditory or kinaesthetic thinking.
Vr – Visual remembered: (eyes up to the right) seeing images of things seen before, as they were. Questions that usually elicits this kind of processing include: “What colour are your mother’s eyes?” “What does your coat look like?”
Vc – Visual constructed: (eyes up to the left) imagining images of things never seen before, or seeing things different that they were. Questions to ask: “What would an orange hippopotamus with purple spots look like?”
Ar – Auditory remembered: (eyes to the right side) remembering sounds heard before. Ask, “What is the sound of your alarm clock?”
Ac – Auditory constructed: (eyes to the left side) hearing sounds never heard before. Ask, “What would the sound of clapping turning into the sound of birds singing sound like?”
Ad – Auditory digital: (eyes down to the right) talking to oneself. Ask, “Recite the Pledge of Allegiance internally.”
K – Kinaesthetic: (Eyes down to the left) Feeling emotions, tactile sensations (sense of touch), or proprioceptive feelings (feelings of muscle movement). Ask, “What does it feel like to be happy?” “What is the feeling of touching a pine cone?”

EPISTEMOLOGY
The study of how we know what we know.

F
FOUR TUPLE (OR 4-TUPLE)
A shorthand method used to notate the structure of any particular experience. The concept of the four tuple maintains that any experience must be composed of some combination of the four primary representational classes -<A,V,K,O – where A = auditory, V = visual, K = kinaesthetic and O = olfactory/gustatory.

FRAME
Set a context or way of perceiving something as in Outcome Frame, Rapport Frame, Backtrack Frame, Out Frame, etc.

FUTURE PACING
The process of mentally rehearsing oneself through some future situation in order to help ensure that the desired behaviour will occur naturally and automatically.

G
GENERALIZATION
One of the three universals of human modelling; the process by which a specific experience comes to represent the entire category of which it is a member.

GESTALT
A collection of memories, where the memories are linked together or grouped together around a certain subject.

GUSTATORY
Relating to taste or the sense of taste.

H
HIERARCHY
An organization of things or ideas where the more important ideas are given a ranking based upon their importance.

I
IDENTITY
Our sense of who we are. Our sense of identity organizes our beliefs, capabilities, and behaviours into a single system.

IMPASSE
A smoke screen. When a person draws a blank or gets confused as you are working on an issue with them.

INCONGRUENCE
State of having reservations, not totally committed to an outcome, the internal conflict will be expressed in the person’s behaviour.

INSTALLATION
The process of facilitating the acquisition of a new strategy or behaviour. A new strategy may be installed through some combination of anchoring, accessing cues, metaphor, and future pacing.

INTEGRITY
Congruence and honesty. Personal integrity and ethical actions are necessary for a high level of NLP skills.

INTENTION
The purpose or desired outcome of any behaviour.

INTROJECTS
Sub-conscious rules that control behaviour.

INTUITION
Consistent judgements made by people (typically, without an explanation of how these judgements are made). Within language systems, the ability of native speakers of a language to make consistent judgements about the sentences of their language; for example, their ability to decide which sentence of words in their language are well-formed.

INTERNAL REPRESENTATION
Patterns of information we create and store in our minds in combinations of images, sounds, feelings, smells and tastes. The way we store and encode our memories.

J

K
KINAESTHETIC
Relating to body sensations. In NLP the term kinaesthetic is used to encompass all kinds of feelings including tactile, visceral, and emotional.

L
LEADING
Changing your own behaviours with enough rapport for the other person to follow. Pacing and leading is an important part of NLP. You should enter the client’s world, and lead him to reach the appropriate conclusions himself for achieving the changes desired.

LEAD SYSTEM
The preferred representational system (visual, auditory, kinaesthetic) that finds information to input into consciousness.

LEARNING
The process of getting knowledge, skills, experience or values by study, experience or training.

LEARNING CYCLE
Stages of learning to build habitual skills –
1. Unconscious in Competence
2. Conscious Incompetence
3. Conscious Competence
4. Unconscious Competence

LEARNING STRATEGIES
Sequences of images, sounds and feelings that lead to learning.

LEARNING STYLES
Different preferred ways of learning. There are many different models, including different senses, Meta programs or concept-structure-use. Some prefer to see things, others learn best if they read, and some learn best if they hear someone talk about the material.

LOGICAL LEVELS
An internal hierarchy in which each level is progressively more psychologically encompassing and impactful. In order of importance (from high to low) these levels include:
(1) Spiritual,
(2) Identity,
(3) Beliefs and values,
(4) Capabilities,
(5) Behaviour, and
(6) Environment.

LOOP
The inappropriate, usually compulsive repetition of a unit of behaviour.

M
MAP OF REALITY
(Model of the World) Each person’s unique representation of the world built from his or her individual perceptions and experiences.

MATCHING
Adopting parts of another person’s behaviour for the purpose of enhancing rapport.

META
Derived from Greek, meaning over or beyond.

META-COGNITION
Knowing about knowing: having a skill, and the knowledge about it to explain how you do it.

META MODEL
A model developed by John Grinder and Richard Bandler in studying Virginia Satir. It identifies categories of language patterns that indicate to limitations in a person’s model of the world. The Meta Model is based on Transformational Grammar and identifies common distortions, deletions and generalizations, which obscure the Deep Structure/original meaning. The model has clarifying questions that will restore the original meaning of the message. The Meta Model reconnects language with experiences, and can be used for gathering information, clarifying meanings, identify limitations, and opening up choices.

META PROGRAM
A level of mental programming that determines how we sort, orient to, and chunk our experiences. Our Meta programs are more abstract than our specific strategies for thinking and define our general approach to a particular issue rather than the details of our thinking process.

META MESSAGE
A message about a message. Your non-verbal behaviour is constantly giving people Meta messages about you and the information your are providing.
Meta message is higher level messages about:
1 The type of message being sent.
2 The state/status of the messenger.
3 The state/status of the receiver.
4 The context in which the message is being sent.

META MIRROR
Developed by Robert Dilts, a Meta Mirror is a 4th position added to the 1st. position (as seen through your own eyes), 2nd. position (as seen through the eyes of the other), 3rd. position (observing both your and the other), and the 4th. position which is about how your 3rd position you treat the “you” that is in relationship with the other person. Dilts notes, that often, the way the person treats you is a “reflection” (hence, Meta- Mirror) of the way you treat yourself. The Meta-Mirror creates a context in which we can keep shifting perceptual positions inside and outside the problematic relationship until we find the most appropriate and ecological relationship of the elements.

META POSITION
The process of thinking about one situation or phenomenon as something else, i.e., stories, parables, and analogies.

METAPHOR
The process of thinking about one situation or phenomenon as something else, i.e., stories, parables, and analogies.

MILTON MODEL
The language of trance and persuasion. Artfully vague language patterns to pace another person’s experience and access unconscious resources. Based on the language used by Milton H. Erickson M.D.

MIRRORING
Matching portions of another person’s physiology or behaviour with another or opposite portion or behaviour of your own.

MISMATCHING
Adopting different patterns of behaviour to another person, breaking rapport for the purpose of redirecting, interrupting or terminating a meeting or conversation.

MODEL
A practical description of how something works, whose purpose is to be useful.

MODEL OF THE WORLD
A person’s internal representation about the condition of the world.

MODELLING
The process of observing and mapping the successful behaviours of other people. In NLP this involves profiling behaviours/physiology, beliefs and values, internal states and strategies

MULTIPLE DESCRIPTION
The process of describing the same thing from different viewpoints.

N
NEURO-LINGUISTIC PROGRAMMING (NLP)
A behavioural model and set of explicit skills and techniques founded by John grinder and Richard Bandler in 1975. Defined as the study of the structure of subjective experience. NLP studies the patterns or “programming” created by the interactions among the brain (Neuro), language (linguistic), and the body that produce both effective and ineffective behaviour. The skills and techniques were derived by observing the patterns of excellence in experts from diverse fields of professional communication, including psychotherapy, business, hypnosis, law, and education.

NEW BEHAVIOUR GENERATOR STRATEGIES
A process where a person reviews a situation where they don’t behave as they would like to, and then adds new resources into that situation. They can either
(1) Choose a resource that they have had access to in the past;
(2) Pretend like they have the resource, or
(3) Find someone else that has a resource and model them.

NON-VERBAL
Without words. Usually referring to the analogue portion of our behaviour such as tone of voice or other external behaviour.

O
OLFACTURY
Relating to smell or the sense of smell.

OPEN FRAME
An opportunity for anyone to raise any comments or questions about the material that interests them.

OUTCOMES
Goals or desired states that a person or organization aspires to achieve.

OUT FRAMING
Setting a frame that excludes possible objections. “I will answer any question, except questions about the seating arrangements.” This is a very important concept in meetings and presentations.

OVERLAP
Using one representational system to gain access to another, for example, picturing a scene and then hearing the sounds in it.

P
PACING
A method used by communicators to quickly establish rapport by matching certain aspects of their behaviour to those of the person with whom they are communicating – a matching or mirroring of behaviour.

PARTS
A metaphorical way of talking about independent programs and strategies or behaviour. Programs or “parts” will often develop a persona that becomes one of their identifying features.

PAST PACING
Is installing memories of having already achieved a desired change at some earlier date in order to create memories of already having achieved the desired change in the past.

PATTERN INTERRUPT
Breaking a habitual pattern before it is completed.

PERCEPTUAL FILTERS
The unique ideas, experiences, beliefs and language that shape our model of the world.

PERCEPTUAL POSITION
A particular perspective or point of view. In NLP there are three basic positions one can take in perceiving a particular experience. First position involves experiencing something through our own eyes associated in a first person point of view. Second position involves experiencing something from the other persons view with their mind and their beliefs, values, Meta programs etc… Third position involves standing back and perceiving the relationship between our selves and others from a dissociated perspective.

PHONOLOGICAL AMBIGUITY
Two words that sound the same, but there/their difference is plain/plane to see/sea.

PHYSIOLOGY
To do with the physical part of a person.

PROBLEM SPACE
Problem space is defined by both physical and non-physical elements that create or contribute to a problem. Solutions arise out of a “Solution Space” of resources and alternatives. A Solution Space needs to be broader than the Problem Space to produce an adequate solution.

PROCESS AND CONTENT
Content is what is done, whereas process is about how it is done. What you say is content and how you say it is process.

POLARITY
If an individual initially notices (and looks for) the aspects that match and agree, he/she is called a positive responder. If the person initially notices (and looks for) the mismatch initially, and is on the lookout for what is wrong or what could go wrong, he/she is called a negative or polarity responder. If you say ‘yes’ a polarity responder will immediately say ‘no’.

PREDICATES
Process words (like verbs, adverbs, and adjectives) that a person selects to describe a subject. Predicates are used in NLP to identify which representational system a person is using, and subsequently preferred sensory predicates are used in the interaction enhancing rapport.

PREFERRED SYSTEM
The representational system that an individual typically uses most to think consciously and organize his or her experience.

PRESUPPOSITIONS of NLP
Basic underlying assumptions that are necessary for a representation to make sense. Within language systems, a sentence which must be true for some other sentence to make sense. Mastery of presuppositions is one of the keys to NLP excellence.

PUNCTUATION AMBIGUITY
Ambiguity by merging two separate sentences into one can always try to make sense of them.

Q
QUOTES
A pattern in which a message that you want to deliver can be embedded in quotations, as if someone else had stated the message.

R
RAPPORT
The establishment of trust, harmony, and cooperation in a relationship.

REFRAMING
Changing the meaning of a communication by changing the context, the frame size or other changes that put the communication into a situation where the meaning is altered.
A process used in NLP through which a problematic behaviour is separated from the positive intention of the internal program or “part” that is responsible for the behaviour. New choices of behaviour are established by having the part responsible for the old behaviour take responsibility for implementing other behaviours that satisfy the same positive intention but don’t have the problematic by-products.

RELEVANCY CHALLENGE
Asking how a specific statement or behaviour is helping to achieve an agreed outcome.

REPRESENTATIONAL SYSTEM PRIMACY
Where an individual systematically uses one sense over the others to process and organize his or her experience. Primary representational system will determine many personality traits as well as learning capabilities.

REPRESENTATIONAL SYSTEMS
The five senses: seeing, hearing, touching (feeling), smelling, and tasting.

REFERENCE STRUCTURE
The sum total of experiences in a person’s life story. Also, the fullest representation from which other representations within some system are derived; for example, the Deep Structure serves as the Reference Structure for the Surface Structure.

REQUISITE VARIETY
Flexibility of thought and behaviour. Able to make any number of changes on the way to an outcome / goal to ensure its achievement.

RESOURCES
Any means that can be brought to bear to achieve an outcome: physiology, states, thought, strategies, experiences, people, events or possessions.

RESOURCEFUL STATE
The total neurological and physiological experience when a person feels resourceful.

R.O.L.E. MODEL
The purpose of modelling is to create a pragmatic map or “Model” of some particular phenomenon that can be used to reproduce that phenomenon by anyone who is motivated to do so.

R EPRESENTATIONAL SYSTEM – Visual, Auditory, Kinaesthetic, Language, patterns, Sub-Modalities
O RIENTATION – External, Remembered, Constructed
L INKS – Sequential or Digital, Simultaneous or Analogue, Synaesthesia
E FFECT – Access, Evaluate, Input, Organize, Utilize.

S
S.O.A.R MODEL
S TATE Levels of change, time frame & perceptual positions which make up the starting state, the desired state and transitional states
O PERATOR Linguistic, Cognitive and physical influences operating
A and
R ESULT Changes in state

S.C.O.R.E. MODEL
Developed by Robert Dilts and Todd Epstein, identifies the components necessary for effectively organizing information about any change. The following five elements are necessary:
S YMPTOM – are typically the most noticeable about the problem.
C AUSE(S) – the underlying elements responsible for creating problem.
O UTCOME – the goal or desired state that will take care of the symptoms.
R ESOURCES – the elements responsible for creating and maintaining outcome.
E FFECT – the reason or motivation for wanting the outcome in the first place. Some say the ‘E’ is for ecology – the effect this will have on others and the circumstances of the person’s life.

SENSORY ACUITY
The process of learning to make finer and more useful distinctions about the sense information we get from the world.

SENSORY-BASED DESCRIPTION
Information that is directly observable and verifiable by the senses. It is the difference between “The lips are pulled taut, some parts of her teeth are showing and the edges of her mouth are higher than the main line of her mouth” and “She’s happy” – which is an interpretation.

SLIDING ANCHOR
An anchor, which is functioning as an amplitude of response, similar to a slide potentiometer on a stereo. The sliding anchor can both amplify and decrease depending on how you set it up. Richard Bandler combines sliding and stacking anchors in order to create optimal states.

SLIGHT-OF-MOUTH PATTERN
Developed by Robert Dilts modelling Richard Bandler’s language patterns. The patterns are used with any complex equivalence or cause-effect statement as a conversational belief change.

SECOND POSITION
Seeing the world from another person’s point of view and so understanding their reality.

SECONDARY GAIN
Where some seemingly negative or problematic behaviour actually carries out some positive function at some other level. For example, smoking may help a person to relax or help them fit a particular self-image.

STATE
The total ongoing mental and physical conditions from which a person is acting.
The state we are in affects our capabilities and interpretation of experience.

STIMULUS RESPONSE
An association between an experience and a subsequent so-called reaction; the natural learning process Ivan P. Pavlov demonstrated when he correlated the ringing of a bell to the secretion of saliva in dogs.

STRATEGY
A set of explicit mental and behavioural steps used to achieve a specific outcome. In NLP, the most important aspect of a strategy is the representational systems used to carry out the specific steps.

SOFTENERS
Lessen the impact of a direct question by softening voice tone or preamble such as “Would you be willing to tell me ….?

SPATIAL MARKING
Consistently using different areas of space for different actions to associate location with action.

SORT
A computer term meaning to reorganize and/or to filter information in the process of the reorganization.

STACKING ANCHORS
Stacking anchors is when you use the same anchor repeatedly to get a combination anchor that elicits several memories. The effect is additive, and you can create some very powerful combination anchors this way.

SUB-MODALITIES
The finer distinctions of sensory qualities perceived by each of the senses. For example, visual sub- modalities include colour, shape, movement, brightness, depth, etc. auditory sub-modalities include volume, pitch, tempo, etc, and kinaesthetic sub-modalities include pressure, temperature, texture, location, etc.

SURFACE STRUCTURE
The words or language used to describe or stand for the actual primary sensory representations stored in the brain.

SWISH PATTERN
A generative NLP sub-modality process that programs your brain to go in a new direction. Is very effective in changing habits or unwanted behaviours into new constructive ones.

SYNAESTHESIA
The process of overlap between representational systems, characterized by phenomena like see-feel circuits, in which a person derives feelings from what he sees, and hear-feel circuits, in which a person gets feelings from what they hear. Any two sensory modalities may be linked together.

SYNTACTIC AMBIGUITY
Ambiguous sentence where a verb plus “ing” can serve either as an adjective or a verb, e.g. Influencing people can make a difference.

SYSTEMIC
To do with systems, looking at relationships and consequences over time and space rather than linear cause and effect.

T

THERAPY
A generic term used to describe the application of any medical, psychiatric, psychological or alternative process designed to promote health and well-being

THIRD POSITION
When step back and observe yourself and others interacting as though you were a fly on the wall.

TIMELINE
A way to look at how we store our time. An imaginary line connecting our past, present and future. This line is travelled along in order to re-visit and change our future or past history. We store memories in pictures, sounds, and feelings, and we know more or less where in time each memory belongs. Being ‘In time’ refers to being in the moment and unaware of time. People who are predominantly ’in time’ are often late. Being ‘Through time’ refers to people who have time stored outside of themselves and can view time apart from themselves. People who are predominantly through time, are good time managers.

TONAL MARKING
Using your voice to mark out certain words as being significant.

T.O.T.E
Developed by Miller, Galanter and Pribram, the term stands for the sequence Test- Operate-Test-Exit, which describes the basic feedback loop used to guide all behaviour.

TRANCE
An altered state with an inward focus of attention on a few stimuli.

TRIPLE DESCRIPTION
The process of perceiving experience through First, Second, and Third Positions.

TRANSDERIVATIONAL SEARCH
The process of searching back through one’s stored memories and mental representations to find the reference experience from which a current behaviour or response was derived.

TRANSLATING
The process of rephrasing words from one type of representational system predicates to another.

U
UNCONSCIOUS INCOMPETENCE
The first stage of the learning cycle in which we are unaware of a skill.

UNCONSCIOUS COMPETENCE
The fourth stage of learning in which the skill has been fully integrated and is habitual.

UPTIME
State where the attention and senses are committed outwards.

UTILIZATION
A technique in which a specific strategy sequence or pattern of behaviour is paced or matched in order to influence another’s response.

V
VALUES
Those things that are important to us and are driving our actions.

VISUAL
Relating to sight or the sense of sight.

VISUALIZATION
The process of seeing images in your mind.

VISUAL SQUASH
A process of negotiating between two internal parts or polarities that included defining the parts, identifying the positive purpose or intention of each and negotiating agreement with resultant integration.

V K Dissociation

The Fast Phobia Cure. Separating the internal visual image from the associated kinaesthetic feelings.

VOICE QUALITY
The second most important channel of communication and influence. Research suggests it is 38 percent of the total impact of the communication.

W
WELL-FORMEDNESS CONDITIONS
The set of conditions something must satisfy in order to produce an effective and ecological outcome. In NLP a particular goal is well-formed if it can be:
(1) Stated in positive terms,
(2) Defined and evaluated according to sensory based evidence,
(3) Initiated and maintained by the person who desires the goal,
(4) Made to preserve the positive by-products of the present state, and
(5) Appropriately conceptualised to fit the external ecology.

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NLP Glossary, Neuro Linguistic Programming Terms, NLP Definitions

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